https://www.youtube.com/user/TheBereanCall/videos, https://livestream.com/bereancallconference. How did it become such a thorny issue? Now, the councils that had decreed things now said, “Oh yeah, but we are all subject to the pope because he’s infallible, so we must follow him,” and so forth. Misuse of religious power.  To popularize Counter-Reformation teachings, the Church encouraged the Baroque style in art, music and architecture. In the 11th century, already strained relations between the primarily Greek church in the East, and the Latin church in the West, developed into the East-West Schism, partially due to conflicts over papal authority.  When he died in 1547 all monasteries, friaries, convents of nuns and shrines were destroyed or dissolved. In 787, the fathers of the Second Council of Nicaea "warmly received the papal delegates and his message". , During this period, the Bible as it has come down to the 21st century was first officially laid out in Church Councils or Synods through the process of official 'canonization'. His successor Kurt von Schuschnigg (1934–38) was also pro-Catholic and received Vatican support. Pope Clement XI ordered the feast of the Immaculata for the whole Church in 1708. Deep-rooted suspicions remained on both sides and were inflamed by the Dreyfus Affair. Some claim that each of these churches was autonomous, with no central authority like Peter, and that is certainly the model of many modern protestant churches. In a word, no. This marked the beginning of the Roman Catholic Church.  Innocent X and Clement XI battled Jansenism and Gallicanism, which supported Conciliarism, and rejected papal primacy, demanding special concessions for the Church in France. When Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933 and asked for a concordat, Pius XI accepted. , Toward the latter part of the 17th century, Pope Innocent XI viewed the increasing Turkish attacks against Europe, which were supported by France, as the major threat for the Church.  The accused were encouraged to recant their heresy and those who did not could be punished by penance, fines, imprisonment or execution by burning. The Papacy were the initial victors, but as Italians divided between Guelphs and Ghibellines in factions that were often passed down through families or states until the end of the Middle Ages, the dispute gradually weakened the Papacy, not least by drawing it into politics. , 12th-century France witnessed the growth of Catharism in Languedoc.  Archbishop Óscar Romero, a supporter of the movement, became the region's most famous contemporary martyr in 1980, when he was murdered while celebrating Mass by forces allied with the government. A few months later, on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses in public, hoping to spark debate. They were intended to return the Holy Land to Christian control.  Many of these gifts were funded through severe taxation of pagan cults. The Cologne War (1583–89) was a conflict between Protestant and Catholic factions which devastated the Electorate of Cologne. When Pope Pius VI sided against the revolution in the First Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy. The Assumptionists published anti-Semitic and anti-republican articles in their journal La Croix. That’s why we have some of these positive confession teachers, or various ones: Benny Hinn, teaching peculiar doctrines. Yet, as the Catholic Encyclopedia admits: "No direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture." , The Cluniac reform of monasteries that began in 910 placed abbots under the direct control of the pope rather than the secular control of feudal lords, thus eliminating a major source of corruption. The Concordat of 1933 included guarantees of liberty for the Church in Nazi Germany, independence for Catholic organisations and youth groups, and religious teaching in schools.  It also reformed many other areas of importance to the Church, most importantly by improving the education of the clergy and consolidating the central jurisdiction of the Roman Curia. The Second Vatican Council in the 1960s introduced the most significant changes to Catholic practices since the Council of Trent four centuries before. That is, the Catholic Church maintains the apostolic succession of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope – the successor to Saint Peter.  A series of more centrally organized persecutions of Christians emerged in the late 3rd century, when emperors decreed that the Empire's military, political, and economic crises were caused by angry gods. Changes to old rites and ceremonies following Vatican II produced a variety of responses.  Popular Marian piety was even more colourful and varied than ever before: Numerous Marian pilgrimages, Marian Salve devotions, new Marian litanies, Marian theatre plays, Marian hymns, Marian processions. Scholars have called him a saintly pope because he reformed abuses by the Church, including simony, nepotism and the lavish papal expenditures that had caused him to inherit a papal debt of 50,000,000 scudi. Many French Catholics wished the dogmatization of Papal infallibility and the assumption of Mary by the ecumenical council. They will grant that Paul was a rabbi, missionary, mystic, polemicist, author, and apostle.  Cistercian monk Bernard of Clairvaux exerted great influence over the new orders and produced reforms to ensure purity of purpose.  Over the next 150 years, the missions expanded into southwestern North America.  Abuses committed during the crusade caused Innocent III to informally institute the first papal inquisition to prevent future massacres and root out the remaining Cathars. 1905 the 1801 Concordat was abrogated; Church and State were finally separated. During the Council, Paul VI proclaimed Mary to be the Mother of the Church.  Japanese were forbidden to leave the country and Europeans were forbidden to enter.  Other biased commentators accused Pius of not doing enough to stop Nazi atrocities.  This ended under Pope Clement VIII, who hesitantly accepted King Henry IV's 1598 Edict of Nantes, which granted civil and religious toleration to Protestants. The Catholic Church was not founded by any one person or any two people.  To resolve other disputes, Constantine began the practice of calling ecumenical councils to determine binding interpretations of Church doctrine.  In the Holocaust, Pope Pius XII directed the Church hierarchy to help protect Jews and Gypsies from the Nazis.  Many fled or renounced their beliefs. Later, the Basilique Saint-Denis marked a new trend in cathedral building when it utilized Gothic architecture. Catholics were for the most part anti-dreyfusard. Then you had a bit of an argument: who is the chief bishop? But both books made me all the more curious as to how the Catholic Church developed in the early centuries.  After the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire and repeated incursions of Islamic forces into Italy, the papacy, without any protection, entered a phase of major weakness. , France remained basically Catholic. Some stopped going to church, while others tried to preserve the old liturgy with the help of sympathetic priests. With Licinius, (Eastern Roman emperor), he issued the Edict of Milan which mandated toleration of all religions in the empire. The teaching order was to become the modern world's largest institute for women, with around 14,000 members in 2012. Infallibility of the pope—that wasn’t declared until 1852, wasn’t it? , After repeated violations of the Concordat, Pope Pius XI issued the 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge which publicly condemned the Nazis' persecution of the Church and their ideology of neopaganism and racial superiority. In the 1960s, growing social awareness and politicization in the Latin American Church gave birth to liberation theology. In 313, the persecutions were lessened by the Edict of Milan with the legalization of Christianity by the Emperor Constantine I.  Efforts by the Church to improve Christian unity became a priority. This meant that all fifty four orders were dissolved and about 20,000 members immediately left France, many for Spain. 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